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How Fiber in the Video Security & Surveillance Network

 

What is Security video cameras?

Security video cameras offered in one of two formats:

Analog Video

~Optical transmitters modify signal output based on video content

~Modifications include amplitude (AM) or frequency (FM)

~Most commonly used for security and surveillance applications

~Tried and true technology and still the lowest cost option today

~80% + market share today for new installations

 

 

 

 

IP Video

~Video camera automatically encodes the video output into IP packets

~Video output can be transmitted directly over a traditional Ethernet LAN

~Power over Ethernet technology benefits

~Gaining popularity in security and surveillance applications

~Estimated to gain 50% + market share by 2010

 

   

        

        

Analog or IP video camera functionality falls into two broad categories:

Fixed

Typically for entry doors, hallways, gates, etc.

Pan-Tilt-Zoom (PTZ)

Typically used in retail, casinos, etc. where the ability to change camera view is required and the cameras are actively monitored/controlled

 

Typical Analog Video System

228 meter (750ft) distance limitation on coaxial cabling runs

 

 

Typical IP Video System

100 meter(328ft) distance limitation on all UTP cabling runs

 

Video Security & Surveillance Realities

Ever increasing reach of surveillance

~Leading to quality, bandwidth, and transmission distance issues

~Beyond the reach of traditional copper (coax or UTP) cabling

~New camera locations may require new cabling

Many IP camera installations co-exist with analog camera networks

~Cabling mismatch if upgrading cameras

~Extended reach of network beyond original design for new cameras

 

Copper-based cabling limitations

Limited transmission distances

~Coaxial cable < 228 meters (750 ft.)

~UTP cable < 100 meters (328 ft)

~Requires more equipment or signal conditioning / amplification to increase distance

Susceptible to electrical interference

~Noise, high voltages and ground faults

Quality and security risks

~Quality effected by distance and interference

~Copper-based cabling easy to tap into

 

 

Fiber Cabling Benefits

Allows for extended transmission distances

Multimode cable < 2km (1.24 miles)

Single mode cable > 2km

Smaller size, less weight and better tensile strength

Easier installation when pulling through conduit or overhead cable trays

Usually existing as network backbone in vertical risers and between buildings

Reduce cost by utilizing existing fiber infrastructure

Improve quality, bandwidth and distance of video system

High degree of security –difficult to tap into or interfere with

Immunity to electrical interference such as:

~Electromagnetic interference (EMI)

~Radio frequency interference (RFI)

High voltage interference caused by:

~Fluorescent lights

~Card access door strikes

~Outdoor lighting systems

Induced voltages caused by ground potential differences between locations

~Occurs in over 50% of all video security systems

 

 

How to deploy fiber

Deploy new devices with fiber ports

~Limited availability

~Expensive

Copper-to-Fiber media converters

~Proven technology

~Allows the integration of fiber optic cabling in copper environments

~Successfully used in LANs and WANs

~Retail, Gov’t, Education, Enterprise, Service Providers, Industrial

 

What is Media Conversion Technology?

A media converter provides a link between different types of media (or cabling) and operates transparently to the network

Supported Media Types:

~UTP

~STP

~MM Fiber

~SM Fiber

~Coax

 

Supported Communication Environments

LAN

~Ethernet (10Mbps)

~Fast Ethernet (100Mbps)

~Ethernet & Fast Ethernet (10/100)

~Gigabit Ethernet (1000Mbps)

~Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, & Gigabit Ethernet (10/100/1000)

~802.3ah support

~PoE

~CWDM

TDM

~T1/E1

~DS3 -T3/E3

~POTS

Serial

~RS232 and RS485

~High Speed Serial

Video

~Analog Video

~IP Video

   

Benefits of Fiber

~Extend network distances

~Protect data from noise and interference

~Future proofing / bandwidth capacity

Benefits of Media Conversion

~Protect investments in current hardware

~Flexibility: Add fiber on a port-by-port basis

~Save money

~Copper and Fiber can co-exist in most networks

~Most protocols support copper to fiber conversion

~Various form factors are available to fit any application

 

Enterprise Application

 

Fiber Integration In Analog Video Networks

 

 

 

Fixed Analog Video Media Converters

~Uni-directional video transmission

~NTSC, PAL and SECAM compatibility

~Compatible with all CCTV equipment

~Real Time Full Color Video

 

 

Features

Link Pass Through

~Automatic Gain Control

~Transmitter & Receiver

Wide input power supply

~Transmitter: 9 –24 VAC; 9 –40 VDC

~Receiver: 9 –16 VAC/DC

 

Fixed Analog Video Media Converters

Typical transmitter

~Miniature stand-alone for space savings

~Direct camera mount

Multiple receiver options

~Miniature SA for space savings

~Traditional size stand alone converter

~Converter Rack mount options

Chassis Card

~for central monitoring location for higher density and the ability to monitor via SNMP

~Single or Dual Receiver card

 

     

 

Analog Video + Data Media Converters

~Conversion of analog unidirectional video to fiber with unidirectional data over fiber

~NTSC, PAL and SECAM compatibility

~Compatible with all CCTV equipment

~Real Time Full Color Video Transmission

Interfaces

~BNC (RG59/RG6)

~Fiber (MM or SM)

~Data (Terminal block [RS232/422/485])

Features

Link Pass Through

Automatic Gain Control

Transmitter & Receiver

Wide input power supply

~Transmitter: 9 –24 VAC; 9 –40 VDC

~Receiver: 9 –16 VAC/DC

 

 

 

IP Video and Power over Ethernet Technology

IEEE 802.3af = Power over Ethernet (PoE) specification

~The ability of a device to transmit power as well as data on the UTP cabling link to an end device (15.4 watts)

~Typical end devices are IP cameras, wireless access points and IP phones

IEEE 802.3at = Power over Ethernet Plus (PoE+) specification

~24 Watts

~More power for devices like PTZ IP Cameras

~Backwards compatible with 802.3af equipment

 

Power over Ethernet Technology Enables IP Video

~PoE greatly simplifies camera installation and is a huge benefit to IP network camera installations vs. analog equivalent

~No need for an electrician to install power receptacle in a difficult location

~Saves time and cost

~Most IP cameras can be Powered Devices (PD) using PoE technology

~Switches can be Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE)

~PoE Injectors (also known as Midspan PSEs) simply insert power onto a CAT 5 Ethernet cable, without affecting the data.

~Media Converters can be Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE)

~PoE Media Converters, in addition to PoE Injectors, allow the addition of PoE capability to existing CAT 5 Networks while also converting from Fiber.

 

Typical IP Video System w/ PoE switch

100 meter (328ft) distance limitation

on all UTP cabling runs

 

 

Typical IP Video System w/ PoE Injectors

100 meter (328ft) distance limitation

on all UTP cabling runs still applies

 

Fiber Cabling and PoE

Can the benefits of fiber be realized while still taking advantage of PoE?

PoE media converters can provide the data link as well as inject the power onto the UTP interface to the camera, while providing the fiber link back to the central location

 

Fiber Integration in IP Video Networks

 

 

Outdoor Applications

~Typical temperature requirements: -40 to +75 degrees C

~Enclosure mounting with no temperature control

~Typically 100 –230 VAC or 24 to 48 VDC

~Serial interfaces most common today: RS232/422/485

~E.g. NEMA-TS2 for Traffic Control

*Operating Temperature: -34 to +74 C

*Emissions Class A

*Transient voltage suppression and immunity higher than for office-grade equipment

~Meet the above requirements with Industrial Ethernet products

 

What is Industrial Ethernet?

Industrial Ethernet

~Generic term to cover communications within non-office open-architecture environments

~Environment will be customer specific

Three Broad Environment Classifications:

~Factory Environments

~Outdoor (e.g. Ethernet / Traffic Control)

~ Lite”, or extended temperature

 

Major Characteristics of Industrial Ethernet

~DIN rail mounting

~Extended operating temperature range

~Designed for passive cooling (Fan-less)

~Rugged design, especially the case

~Rugged connectors in addition to RJ-45 (e.g. M12)

~Higher Ingress Protection rating to protect from dust / moisture

~Edge-based (where the devices are)

~Very long deployment lifetimes requiring higher reliability

 

Industrial Ethernet in Outdoor Locations

Industrial Fiber-to-Copper with Power-over-Ethernet (PoE)

~Outdoor Cabinets (non-temp controlled)

~Security cameras

~Wireless access points

 

PoE Products

PoE Switches

~Copper to copper devices

~Data in/out port w/ PoE power inserted on unused pairs

 

 

PoE Injectors

~Copper to copper devices

~Data in port

~Data out port w/ PoE power inserted on unused pairs

PoE Media Converters

~Fiber to copper devices

~Fiber port

~Copper port w/ PoE power inserted on unused pairs

~ Office grade or industrial

 

Can I Incorporate My Analog CamerasInto My New IP Video Network?

Video Encoder / Decoder

~Also known as Video CoDec or Video Server

~Analog video input on coax

~May include serial port for PTZ functionality

~Video stream is encoded and compressed (MJPG, MPEG2 or MPEG4) into IP packets

~Video output over UTP (10/100Base-TX)Fiber optic port (100Base-FX) are rare, may need to use media conversion

~Managed web-browser interface allows for access from any PC

Analog/IP Video Over Fiber Network

Hybrid Video Surveillance Networks

Many video security and surveillance networks are undergoing transformation

~Conversion from Analog-based to IP-enabled video networks

~Analog and IP cameras will inevitably co-exist

Continue to maintain existing Analog network?

~Many security networks will continue to be analog-based

~Distance reduction when moving to IP video will impede copper-based overhauls

Video Servers / Codecs can ease this transition

~Enjoy the benefits of IP camera technology without replacing existing analog cameras

Hybrid Video over Fiber Network

        

Extended reach of video security and surveillance networks

~Leading to quality, bandwidth and transmission distance issues

~Cameras may be located beyond the reach of traditional copper cabling

~Or beyond the reach of the original network design

Fiber can provide many benefits

~Increased transmission distances –extended reach

~mmunity to electrical interference –improved video quality

~reater security –less risk to tampering

~Smaller, lighter and stronger –easier installation

Media Conversion can ease the transition to fiber

~Utilize existing network security equipment –save on investment

~Benefits of PoE can still be utilized

 

    Outdoor cabinets (non-temp cr cabinets (non-temp controlled)Security cameras

    Wireless access points

     

    Factory environmentsSecurity cameras

    Wireless access points

    VoIP Phones

     

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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